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The Energy Catalyzer (sometimes shortened to E-Cat) is an apparatus built by inventor Andrea Rossi, with support from his scientific consultant, physicist and emeritus professor Sergio Focardi. The 2008 patent application claims “a method and apparatus for carrying out nickel and hydrogen exothermal reactions,” with production of copper. Although the patent cites previous works on cold fusion, one statement by Rossi asserted that it is not cold fusion, but rather LENR, Low-Energy Nuclear Reaction. Claims of a similar system, but yielding considerably less power, had previously been advanced by Focardi et al. According to Focardi, “the hydrogen is heated at a given temperature with a simple resistor. When the ignition temperature is reached, the energy production process starts: the hydrogen atoms penetrate into the nickel and transform it into copper.”
The device has been demonstrated to an invited audience several times, and has been commented on positively by Bologna physics professor Giuseppe Levi, and by the Swedish technology magazine Ny Teknik, together with the online publication New Energy Times. However, Ny Teknik and the New Energy Times, together with other sources, have since published less favourable reports – with Ny Teknik pointing out apparent flaws in the science involved in testing, and the New Energy Times going as far as to assert that Rossi’s claims may be fraudulent. On the other hand, Mark Gibbs of Forbes wrote: “to be completely dismissive of Rossi’s claims would seem to be foolish as it is one thing to *believe* something is false based on your assumptions and quite another to be able to *prove* beyond a reasonable doubt that it is false.” going on to remark, “That’s not to say some data doesn’t exist but until a verifiably objective analysis is conducted by an independent third party that confirms the results match the claims there’s no real news”.
1 Demonstrations and investigations
1.1 January to April demonstrations
1.2 Bologna, September 2011 demonstration
1.3 Bologna, October 6th 2011 demonstration
1.4 Bologna, October 28th 2011 Customer Acceptance Test
2 Evaluation of the device
4 Commercial plans
4.3 Undisclosed customer
6 External links
 Demonstrations and investigations
The device has not yet been independently verified. Several demonstrations were given to invited guests. In January and February two demonstrations were given in the presence of Levi. In March two Swedish scientists witnessed a demonstration. In April some representatives from the press were invited, and two demonstrations followed in September and October. None of these were set up to provide scientific evidence.
 January to April demonstrations
Held in Bologna, January 14, 2011, the demonstration was monitored by independent scientific representatives of the University of Bologna, including a researcher in physics, Giuseppe Levi. Levi concluded that the power and energy produced was “impressive,” and that the Energy Catalyzer might be working as a new type of energy source. Ny Teknik, a Swedish technology magazine, reported that editorial staff were polled on their reaction to this report. “The result: two-thirds do not believe in it.” Of this demonstration, Discovery Channel analyst Benjamin Radford wrote that “If this all sounds fishy to you, it should,” and that “In many ways cold fusion is similar to perpetual motion machines. The principles defy the laws of physics, but that doesn’t stop people from periodically claiming to have invented or discovered one.”
Nonetheless, Levi in an interview with Ny Teknik, stated “What has impressed me, and what sets this work apart from everything I’ve ever seen, is that we have 10 kW of measured energy output, and this output is completely repeatable. But what I want to do now is an experiment with continuous operation for at least one or more days. Since there are very specific limits on how much energy you can generate from a given amount of mass, I can thus rule out a chemical reaction as the energy source.”
Another test, lasting 18 hours, was performed in Bologna, from February 10–11, 2011, by Levi and Rossi, but was not conducted in public.
According to Levi, the process was ‘ignited’ by 1,250 watts for five to ten minutes, and power was then reduced to 80 watts (for the control electronics). Cooling was supplied by tap water and flow volume was monitored. As reported by Ny Teknik, “Initially, the temperature of the inflowing water was seven degrees Celsius and for a while the outlet temperature was 40 degrees Celsius. A flow rate of about one liter per second, equates to a peak power of 130 kilowatts. The power output was later stabilized at 15 to 20 kilowatts.” Levi calculated consumption of hydrogen at 0.4 grams. “In my opinion, all chemical sources are now excluded,” he told Ny Teknik.
On March 29, 2011 two Swedish physicists, Hanno Essén, associate professor of theoretical physics and a lecturer at the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology and former chairman of the Swedish Skeptics Society and Sven Kullander, Professor Emeritus at Uppsala University and also chairman of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences’ Energy Committee, participated as observers in a test of a smaller version of the Energy Catalyzer. The test ran for six hours, power output was estimated at 4.4 kW, and total energy produced at about 25 kWh. Essen and Kullander reported, “Any chemical process should be ruled out for producing 25 kWh from whatever is in a 50 cubic centimeter container. The only alternative explanation is that there is some kind of a nuclear process that gives rise to the measured energy production.” In a later conversation, a few months after the test, Essén stated “I want to wait for more facts. The facts I know add up to make this interesting and worth pursuing, but I am still very uncertain about this.”
They were given samples of nickel powder, some unused and some that Rossi reported as used for 2.5 months; analysis showed the unused powder was pure nickel while the used powder contained 10 percent copper and 11 percent iron, although iron production is not mentioned anywhere in the patent. In their test report, Essen and Kullander cautioned, “Since we do not have access to the internal design of the central fuel container and no information on the external lead shielding and the cooling water system we can only make very general comments.”
On April 19 and April 28 two more demonstrations were held. The first of them was also covered by the Italian 24-hour all-news State-owned television channel Rai News. This time a Ny Teknik author attended and tested for some previously noted possibilities of fraud. He therefore calibrated the ammeter, measured the water flow by weighing and calibrated the temperature-sensor probe to confirm that all water is converted to steam. The measurements showed a net power of between 2.3 and 2.6 kilowatts. The input power was 300 watts.
 Bologna, September 2011 demonstration
On September 7, reporter Mats Lewan from Ny Teknik witnessed a further demonstration in which the Energy Catalyzer was first operated for 90 minutes with input power claimed to be around 2.6 kW after which it ran for 35 minutes with 25W input. The total output energy during the whole demonstration was claimed to have exceeded the electrical input energy. The Energy Catalyzer was a larger size than versions used in previous demonstrations. As reported this larger version will be used in the scheduled 1MW plant.
 Bologna, October 6th 2011 demonstration
On October 6, 2011, an E-cat was demonstrated, which reportedly lasted for about eight hours, it was claimed that for the first five hours the input power was up to 3kW, after which the power was reduced to 115W. The power output was claimed to be between two and three kilowatts. Possible uncertainties concerning the quality of the steam were said to have been overcome  by injecting the steam from the Energy Catalyzer into a heat exchanger, where a flow of water was heated,  though the accuracy of measurements was reportedly fairly low. Roland Pettersson, retired Associate Professor from the University of Uppsala, who witnessed it said “I’m convinced that this works, but there is still room for more measurements”. 
 Bologna, October 28th 2011 Customer Acceptance Test
On October 28, 2011, a 1MW plant based on the Energy Catalyzer was reported to have been tested, considered satisfactory and approved by engineer Domenico Fioravanti on behalf of an undisclosed customer intending to acquire the plant.
 Evaluation of the device
Rossi and Focardi’s joint work was rejected by a peer-reviewed scientific journal, and appeared in Rossi’s self-published blog, Journal of Nuclear Physics. Closely related work by Focardi was published in 1998 in the peer-reviewed scientific journal Il Nuovo Cimento A.
With their report on the April demonstrations, Ny Teknik provided some analysis: According to Rossi, the heat is generated from an unknown reaction, which is, according to Essen and Kullander, probably nuclear. The concept of cold fusion, or low-energy nuclear reaction, has been mentioned, referring to a hypothesized reaction between hydrogen and nickel, producing copper. “Many physicists are skeptical,” because fusion of nuclei requires very high temperatures, “according to current knowledge,” and because “fusion should produce very high levels of gamma radiation.”
Rossi states that the device probably works not due to “cold fusion”, but due to weak interactions between nuclei, without actual fusion happening.
As Ny Teknik reports, Peter Ekström, lecturer at the Department of Nuclear Physics at Lund University in Sweden, concluded, “I am convinced that the whole story is one big scam, and that it will be revealed in less than one year.” He cites the unlikelihood of a chemical reaction being strong enough to overcome the Coulomb barrier, the lack of gamma rays, the lack of explanation for the origin of the extra energy, the lack of the expected radioactivity after fusing a proton with 58Ni, the unexplained occurrence of 11% iron in the spent fuel, the 10% copper in the spent fuel strangely having the same isotopic ratios as natural copper, and the lack of any unstable copper isotope in the spent fuel as if the reactor only produced stable isotopes. He later added in New Energy Times that the steam velocity in a videotaped test appears to be way too low for the reported energy production, and that some liquid water might be exiting the system via the drainage tube.
More cautious, Kjell Aleklett, physics professor at Uppsala University in Sweden, summarized in his blog: “What shall we do as scientists? Shall we say madness as many do today, or should we try to understand what is happening? I myself have nothing against to reveal a scam, or join in and verify something that no one could imagine. Both extremes belong to that which makes life as a researcher incredibly interesting.” According to Aleklett, in a sample of spent fuel provided by the inventor, the percentage of copper was too high for any known reaction of nickel, and the copper had the same isotopic ratio as natural copper.
On April 23, 2011, EV World published an audio interview with Dennis M. Bushnell, Chief Scientist at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. Bushnell described several emerging energy technologies, but he identified LENR as “the most interesting and promising at this point”. He continued: “… in January of this year Rossi, backed by Focardi, who had been working on this for many years, and in fact doing some of the best work worldwide, came out and did a demonstration first in January, they re-did it in February, they re-did it in March, where for days they had one of these cells, a small cell, producing in the 10 to 15 kilowatts range, which is far more than enough heat to boil water for tea. And so they say that this is weak interaction, this is not fusion. So I think we’re almost over the We don’t understand it problem. I think we’re almost over the This doesn’t produce anything useful problem. And so I think this will go forward fairly rapidly now. And if it does, this is capable of, by itself, completely changing geo-economics, geo-politics and of solving climate and energy.” Bushnell also said that they (Langley) were investigating and applying the Widom-Larsen theory to an experiment. NASA researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have offered to validate Rossi’s device, if Rossi pays for the tests.
According to PhysOrg, the demonstrations held from January to April 2011 had several flaws that make them lose credibility and Rossi has refused to perform several tests that could clarify dark points.
On October 7th, 2011, Italian scientific journalist Maurizio Melis of Il Sole 24 Ore, who witnessed the demonstration in Bologna of the previous day, wrote: “in the coming weeks Rossi aims to activate a 1MW plant, which is now almost ready, and we had the opportunity to inspect it during the demonstration of yesterday. If the plant starts up then it will be very difficult to affirm that it is a hoax. Instead, we will be suddenly projected into a new energetic era.” 
An application in 2008 to patent the device internationally had received an unfavorable preliminary report on patentability at the World Intellectual Property Organization from the European Patent Office, noting that the description of the device was based on “general statements and speculations” and citing “numerous deficiencies in both the description and in the evidence provided to support its feasibility” as well as incompatibilities with current scientific theories. The patent application was published on October 15, 2009.
However, on 6 April 2011 an application was approved by the Italian Patent and Trademark Office, which issued a patent for the invention, valid only in Italy. International, European, and U.S. patent applications are still pending.
 Commercial plans
In February 2011, Rossi announced an agreement with the newly formed Greek company Defkalion Green Technologies as his first client. According to Rossi, the agreement called for delivery of a 1MW heating plant, consisting of 300 reactors of 4 kW  connected in series and parallel. The plant which would supply heating for Defkalion’s own purposes only, was intended to be inaugurated in October 2011.  Rossi stated that he would not be paid by Defkalion until the installation was delivered and working. Defkalion’s spokesman Symeon Tsalikoglou confirmed the agreement, which gave exclusive rights for Defkalion to manufacture and sell the Energy Catalyzer throughout Greece.
In August 2011 Rossi announced that he had cancelled his contract with Defkalion, stating that none of E-Cat’s technology had been transferred to them. Rossi said that “the issue [that caused the cancellation] is just financial, not personal, nor technological, nor scientific”, and that he wouldn’t comment further because he was preparing a lawsuit against Defkalion. A board member of Defkalion likewise indicated that the reasons for the cancellation were entirely financial. Rossi later confirmed this, specifying that Defkalion was unable to fulfil its contractual obligations in due time.
In May 2011, According to Ny Teknik,  Rossi reached an agreement, for an undisclosed sum, with AmpEnergo, an Ohio company, to receive royalties on sales of licenses and products built on the Energy Catalyzer in the Americas. Three of the founders of AmpEnergo knew Rossi since 1996, through Leonardo Technologies, Inc., which Rossi co-founded, selling his interest in the late 1990s, and which has been working on a series of U.S. government construction engineering contracts. Robert Gentile, former Assistant Secretary of Energy for Fossil Energy at the U.S. Department of Energy was one of four AmpEnergo founders. The design used for the 1 MW plant, originally intended to be inaugurated in October 2011 in the USA, consists of 52 reactors of 27 kW in a standard shipping container. In early October, Rossi stated that, due to contractual difficulties, the container had not been shipped to the U.S..
 Undisclosed customer
A further, as yet undisclosed, customer was present for the inaugural activation of the 1MW plant, which took place in Bologna on October 28, 2011. The demonstration was performed under the control of this unidentified customer who could acquire the plant, “provided that the power consumption to heat output ratio can be verified by the customer.”
^ Italian Office for Patents and Trademarks “processo ed apparecchiatura per ottenere reazioni esotermiche, in particolare da nickel ed idrogeno.” [process and equipment to obtain exothermal reactions, in particular from nickel and hydrogen], Patent Number 0001387256, Deposited 9 April 2008, Issued 6 April 2011, Inventor: Andrea Rossi.
^ Cold Fusion: “You have to embrace this”, Mats Lewan, Ny Teknik, February 23, 2011
^ df.unibo.it, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Professori emeriti
^ International Application No. PCT/IT2008/000532, International Filing Date: 04.08.2008
^ Rossi, Andrea. “Method and apparatus for carrying out nickel and hydrogen exothermal reactions”. World Intellectual Propety Organisation. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
^ S. Focardi; A. Rossi (2010-03-22). “A new energy source from nuclear fusion”. Ny Teknik.
^ WO 125444 2009
^ a b A. Rossi (2011-01-31). “Energy catalyzer: it works and it’s not fusion”. New Energy Times.
^ a b c d Controversial energy-generating system lacking credibility (w/ video), physorg.com, Lisa Zyga, 11 August 2011
^ a b Focardi S, Gabbani V, Montalbano V, Piantelli F, Veronesi S (November 1998). “Large excess heat production in Ni-H systems”. Il Nuovo Cimento A 111 (11): 1233–1242. OCLC 204819206.
^ Fabio Deotto. “Fusione fredda realizzata a Bologna. Sarà vero?” (in Italian). Daily Wired.
^ Mark Gibbs (October 30, 2011). “Believing in Cold Fusion and the E-Cat”. Forbes.
^ Mats Lewan (February 2, 2011). “Cold fusion may provide one megawatt in Athens”. Ny Teknik. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
^ Lisa Zyga (Jan 20, 2011). “Italian scientists claim to have demonstrated cold fusion (w/ Video)”. physorg.com. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
^ Benjamin Radford (Jan 21, 2011). “Cold fusion: Cold Fusion Claims Resurface”. Discovery.com. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
^ Mats Lewan (February 2, 2011). “Cold fusion: Observing researcher wants more tests”. Ny Teknik. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
^ a b c d Lewan, Mats (February 23, 2011). “Cold Fusion: 18 hour test excludes combustion”. Ny Teknik.
^ Interview with Sven Kullander and Hanno Essén (Swedish w. English subtitles). Youtube.com (2001-05-09). Retrieved on 2011-07-10.
^ a b c Lewan, Mats, Swedish physicists on the E-cat ″It’s a nuclear reaction″, Ny Teknik
^ a b Hanno Essén, Sven Kullander (April 3, 2011), Experimental test of a mini-Rossi device at the Leonardocorp, Bologna, 29 March 2011, Ny Teknik
^ Krivit, Steven. “Report #3: Scientific Analysis of Rossi, Focardi and Levi Claims”. New Energy Times Magazine. New Energy Times.
^ a b WO 2009125444, “Method and apparatus for carrying out nickel and hydrogen exothermal reactions”
^ Lewan, Mats (April 19, 2011). “Test of Energy Catalyzer (April 19)”. Ny Teknik.
^ Lewan, Mats (April 28, 2011). “Test of Energy Catalyzer (April 28)”. Ny Teknik.
^ a b c d e f (Swedish) Lewan, Mats. “Ny Teknik tested the energy catalyzer”. Ny Teknik.
^ La magia del signor Rossi, Angelo Saso, Rai News (Italian) (2011-05-03 20:35). Retrieved on 2011-07-10. (Youtube version in Rai News official channel. Retrieved on 2011-07-10.)
^ Ny Teknik: See the E-cat run in self-sustained mode
^ Fusione fredda: nuovo esperimento, “Questa incertezza si può considerare superata con l’esperimento di ieri.” TRANSLATION: “This uncertainty can be considered overcome by means of the experiment of yesterday.”
^ TV: New test of the E-cat enhances proof of heat, “The important new element in the test was that it was possible to bypass the controversial energy calculation, based on vaporization, by injecting the steam from the energy catalyzer into a heat exchanger, where a flow of water was heated.”
^ Test of Energy Catalyzer, Bologna October 6, 2011
^ Ny Teknik: New test of the E-cat enhances proof of heat
^ a b c Half a megawatt E-cat in Bologna – NyTeknik
^ “Italian scientists claim cold fusion success”. EE Times. January 24, 2011.
^ Journal of Nuclear Physics, (blog)
^ a b Kall Fusion på italienska (Cold fusion – Italian style), Peter Ekström, Italian/English
^ “Ekström Energy Analysis of Rossi Device. Appendix 2 to New Energy Times Report #3″, New Energy Times (37), 30 July 2011
^ Kjell Aleklett, “Rossi energy catalyst – a big hoax or new physics?” (blog). Aleklett.wordpress.com (2011-04-11). Retrieved on 2011-07-10.
^ The Future of Energy: Part 1 Podcast approved Transcript
^ Simplified Widom-Larsen theory.
^ Widom-Larsen theory: Against.
^ info.aiaa.org, Robert Moses, March 28, 2011 speaking at AIAA
^ http://www.radio24.ilsole24ore.com/main.php?dirprog=Mr%20Kilowatt “Maurizio Melis is scientific journalist” (Italian: “Maurizio Melis è giornalista scientifico”)
^ Fusione fredda: nuovo esperimento, “Rossi punta ad attivare nelle prossime settimane un impianto da 1 MW, che è ormai quasi completo e che ieri abbiamo avuto l’opportunità di visionare durante la dimostrazione. Se l’apparato funzionerà, sarà molto difficile sostenere che si tratta di un trucco, mentre ci troveremmo improvvisamente proiettati, dal punto di vista energetico, in una nuova era.”
TRANSLATION: “In the coming weeks Rossi aims to activate a 1MW plant, which is now almost ready, and we had the opportunity to inspect it during the demonstration of yesterday. If the plant starts up then it will be very difficult to affirm that it is a hoax. Instead, we will be suddenly projected into a new energetic era.”
^ International Preliminary Report on Patentability. Wipo.int. Retrieved on 2011-07-10.
^ Alasdair Wilkins (January 26, 2011), No, Italian Scientists Have Not Discovered Cold Fusion, Gizmodo
^ The patent granted 6 April, 2011, by the Ufficio Italiano Brevetti e Marchi. Retrieved on 2011-07-10.
^ a b Rossi, Andrea. “Method and apparatus for carrying out nickel and hydrogen exothermal reactions” WO 2009125444 2009-10-15
^ a b (Swedish) Ny Teknik: Patent granted for the energy catalyzer. Nyteknik.se. Retrieved on 2011-07-10.
^ “Defkalion Green Technologies”.
^ «Πράσινη» επένδυση-μαμούθ στην Ξάνθη. Επιβεβαίωση από Ξυνίδη . Xanthipress.gr. 12 March 2011. Retrieved on 2011-07-10.
^ Lewan, Mats (February 2, 2011). “Cold fusion may provide one megawatt in Athens”. Ny Teknik.
^ Lewan, Mats (March 10, 2011). “This is how Rossi is financing his E-cat”. Ny Teknik.
^ Lewan, Mats (February 7, 2011). “Cold Fusion: Here’s the Greek company building 1 MW”. Ny Teknik.
^ O εκπρόσωπος της επένδυσης Defcalion μιλά στο XanthiPress.gr. Xanthipress.gr. 16 March 2011. Retrieved on 2011-07-10.
^ a b “E-cat: Rossi breaks with Greek Defkalion”. Ny Teknik.
^ “Andrea Rossi’s E-Cataclysm?”. evworld.com.
^ “Andrea Rossi and EFA srl. announce that they have terminated the agreement with Praxen/Defkalion Green Technologies for the production of e-cats, Bologna-Roma (Italy)”. August 4, 2011., Rossi’s press release
^ “Comments made by Rossi on his blog, regarding the cancellation”. journal-of-nuclear-physics.com.
^ “Statement from Defkalion Green Technologies”. nytecknik.se. August 8, 2011. confirmation via email from Defkalion to Ny Teknik
^ Comment by Prof Christos Stremmenos on the breach between Andrea Rossi and Defkalion. Sent to Daniele Passerini on August 8, 2011 in Italian Professor Christos Stremmenos, board member of Deflakion
^ (Swedish)Ny Teknik: Energy catalyzer gets U.S. partner. Nyteknik 16 May 2011. Retrieved on 2011-07-10.
^ AmpEnergo. AmpEnergo. Retrieved on 2011-07-10.
^ Ampenergo Certificate of Organization Secretary of State of Ohio, 20 April 2009, (via nyteknik.se)
^ E-Cat Commercialization in the Americas (Press Release) 27 June 2011. AmpEnergo. Retrieved on 2011-07-10.
^ Leonardo Technologies, Inc., (company website) Retrieved on 2011-07-10.
^ Mats Lewan Energy catalyzer gets U.S. partner 16 May 2011, Ny Teknik accessed 18 October 2011
^ “Leonardo Technologies, Inc.” governmentcontractswon.com accessed 19 October 2011
^ Lynn Garner DOE’s fossil energy boss asked to leave by Watkins. (Robert H. Gentile, James Watkins), The Oil Daily, April 30, 1991. (via Highbeam.com, Retrieved on 2011-07-10).
^ Gerhard Peters, John T. Woolley Nomination of Robert H. Gentile To Be an Assistant Secretary of Energy, January 24, 1990, The American Presidency Project, ucsb.edu (1944-02-05). Retrieved on 2011-07-10.
^ Mats Lewan Energy catalyzer gets U.S. partner Nyteknik 16 May 2011 accessed 19 October 2011.
^ Mats Lewan Here’s Rossi’s one megawatt plant Ny Teknik 14 september 2011
^ Mats Lewan TV: New test of the E-cat enhances proof of heat 7 October 2011 accessed 19 October 2011
^ Here are the analyses of the latest E-cat test – NyTeknik
 External links
Wikiversity has learning materials about Cold fusion/Energy Catalyzer
Newest cold-fusion machine does the impossible … or does it?, Teheran Times, April 28, 2011
Italian scientists claim to have demonstrated cold fusion, physorg.com, January 20, 2011
Cold Fusion: “You have to embrace this”, Mats Lewan, Ny Teknik, February 23, 2011
Swedish Skeptics Confirm “Nuclear Process” in Tiny 4.7 kW Reactor Renewable Energy World, May 3, 2011
Ny Teknik: ‘E-cat’: Here is the Greek energy box
University of Cambridge: Andrea Rossi’s ‘E-cat’ nuclear reactor: a video FAQ
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